Volume 4, Issue 1, February 2019, Page: 1-12
The Impact of Arabic Orthography on Literacy and Economic Development in Afghanistan
Anwar Wafi Hayat, Department of Economics, Kabul University, Kabul, Afghanistan
Received: Oct. 15, 2018;       Accepted: Nov. 8, 2018;       Published: Jan. 31, 2019
DOI: 10.11648/j.ijecs.20190401.11      View  19      Downloads  19
Currently, Pashto and Dari (Afghan Persian), the two official languages, and other Afghan languages are written in modified Arabic alphabets. Persian adopted the Arabic alphabets in the ninth century, and Pashto, in sixteenth century CE. This article looks at how the Arabic Orthography has hindered Literacy and Economic development in Afghanistan. The article covers a comprehensive analysis of Arabic Orthography adopted for writing Dari and Pashto, a study of the proposed Arabic Language reforms, and research conducted about reading and writing difficulty in Arabic script by Arab intellectuals. The study shows how adopting modified Latin alphabets for a language can improve literacy level which further plays its part in the economic development of a country. The article dives into the history of Romanization of languages in the Islamic World and its impact on Literacy and economic development in those countries. Romanization of the Afghan Official languages and its possible impact on Literacy, Economy, and Peace in Afghanistan is discussed. Proposed Latin-based Alphabets are introduced for Dari and Pashto languages and factors that may facilitate or hinder the implementation of a Latin-based script in Afghanistan are explained at the end of the article. Romanization, referred to in this article, means converting to Roman script, also called Latin-based script, the alphabets of a language currently written in orthography other than the Latin.
Romanization, Arabic, Pashto, Dari, Literacy, Orthography, Script
To cite this article
Anwar Wafi Hayat, The Impact of Arabic Orthography on Literacy and Economic Development in Afghanistan, International Journal of Education, Culture and Society. Vol. 4, No. 1, 2019, pp. 1-12. doi: 10.11648/j.ijecs.20190401.11
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Ernst, C. W. (2013). "The Global Significance of Arabic Language and Literature". Religion Compass 7.
Aydemir, Ş. S. (1995). Tek Adam Mustafa Kemal (1922-1938), Cilt III (12. basım).
Tongul, N. (2004). Türk Harf İnkılâbı. Ankara Üniversitesi Türk İnkılâp Tarihi Enstitüsü Atatürk Yolu Dergisi, 33/34, 103-130.
Korkmaz, Z. (2009). Alfabe devriminin Türk toplumu üzerindeki sosyal ve kültüreletkileri. Turkish Studies, 4/3, 1469-1480.
Milton-Edwards, B. (2005). Politics and religion. In Youssef M. Choueiri (Ed.), A companion to the history of the Middle East (pp.444-461). Oxford: Blackwell.
Basak, O. (1986). Turkish language reform. In Renda, G., & Kortepeter, C. M. (Eds.).
Şimşir, B. N. (2006). Türk Harf Devrimi üzerine incelemeler. Ankara: Atam Yayınları.
Davison, R. H. (1998). Turkey: A short history. Huntingdon: The Eothen Press.
Lewis, G. (1999). The Turkish language reform: A catastrophic success. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Metz, H. C. (1996). Turkey: A country study. Washington, DC: Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress.
Römer, C. (2009). Language and script. In G. Ágoston and B. Masters (Eds.), Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire (pp.322-323). New York: Facts On File, Inc.
Uzer, Umut (2016). An Intellectual History of Turkish Nationalism. Utah: The University of Utah Press. p. 103,104
Aydemir, Ş. S. (1995). Tek Adam Mustafa Kemal (1922-1938), Cilt III (12. basım).
Wood, Margaret M. “Latinizing the Turkish Alphabet: A Study in the Introduction of a Cultural Change.” American Journal of Sociology, vol. 35, no. 2, 1929, pp. 194–203.
Dogancay, S. A. (1995). An evaluation of the Turkish language reform after 60 years. Language Problems and Language Planning, 19(3), 221-249.
Smith. (n.d.). Language and Power in the Creation of the USSR, 1917-1953.
Mark Sebba, Ideology and Alphabets in the former USSR, 2003, Department of Linguistics and Modern English Language.
Uzman. (n.d.). Romanization in Uzbekistan Past and Present.
Hegyi. (n.d.). "Minority and Restricted Uses of the Arabic Alphabet: The Aljamiado Phenomenon".
Clement. (n.d.). Rewriting the "Nation": Turkmen Literacy, Language, and Power, 1904-2004.
Boonlong, F. R. (2007). The Language Rights of the Malay Minority in Thailand.” Asia-Pacific Journal on Human Rights & the Law 8 (1)"47–63.
Baluch, B. &. (1991). Visual word recognition in beginning readers of Persian. Perceptual and Motor.
Akawi, E. (1943). Alefbaa Farouq: al-Hurouf al-Jadidah (Farouq Alphabet: the New Script). Cairo, c. Al Maaref.
Haralambous, Yannis, Simplification of the Arabic Script: Three Different Approaches and their Implementations, Atelier Fluxus Virus 187, rue Nationale 59800 Lille, France
Nammour, Yara Khoury, Fighting Illiteracy With Typography, Works That Work, issue 06
Nammour, Y. K. (2014). Nasri Khattar, A Modernist Typotect (English and Arabic Edition).
Shrivtiel, S. (1998). The Question of Romanisation of the Script and The Emergence of Nationalism in the Middle East. Mediterranean Language Review.
Sakkal, M. (2000/2008). A Brief Survey of Proposals to Simplify Arabic Script.
Al-Saggar, M. S. (1998). Abjadiat al Saggar, al mashrou' wal mihnah (The Saggar Alphabet, the project and the trial). Damascus, Beirut, Al Mada, Nicosia.
Bianchi, R. M. (2012). 3arabizi - When local Arabic meets global English. Acta Linguistica Asiatica, 2(1), 89-100.
Attwa, M. (2012). Arabizi: a writing variety worth learning? An exploratory study of the views of foreign learners of Arabic on Arabizi. (Unpublished master's thesis) Retrieved from http://dar.aucegypt.edu/bitstream/handle/10526/3167/Thesis-Arabizi_is it a writing variety.
UNESCO. (1953). The progress of Literacy in Various Countries. Paris: Firmen-Didot Et.
Aytürk, İ. (2010). Script Charisma in Hebrew and Turkish: A Comparative. Framework for Explaining Success and Failure of Romanization.
Literacy Statistics Metadata Information Table. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. September 2015.
World Literacy Foundation. (2015). The Economic & Social Cost of Illiteracy. A snapshot of Illiteracy in a Global Context.
Goldschmidt & Davidson, 2006, p. 229.
Browse journals by subject